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Home Book of Abraham Special Section Roots of ancient Egypt

Roots of ancient Egypt

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Manetho's Kings

(According to Josephus)

TIMAUS Was the ruling Egyptian pharaoh before the Hyksos invaded Egypt

Hyksos kings ("first rulers among them"):

SALATIS Reigned 13 years, lived in Memphis, Upper & Lower Egypt paid tribute.

BEON Reigned 44 years

APACHNAS Reigned 36 years & 7 months

APOPHIS Reigned  61 years

JANIAS Reigned 50 years & 1 month

ASSIS Reigned 49 years & two months

Total 254 years

Menetho goes on to state that the shepherd kings, "kept possession of Egypt 511 years"

Expulsion of the Hyksos:



Egyptian New Kingdom Period:

TETHMOSIS Reigned 25 years & 4 months

CHEBRON Reigned 13 years

AMENOPHIS Reigned 20 years & 7 months

AMESSES (sister of Amenophis);  Reigned 21 years & 9 months

MEPHRES Reigned 12 years & 9 months

MEPHRAMUTHIS Reigned 25 years & 10 months

TETHMOSIS Reigned 9 years & 8 months

AMENOPHIS Reigned 30 years & 10 months

ORUS Reigned 36 years & 5 months, "spectator of the gods"

ACENCHRES (daughter of Orus);  Reigned 12 years & 1 month

RATHOTIS (brother of Acenchres);   Reigned 9 years

ACENCHERES Reigned 12 years & 5 months

ACENCHERES Reigned 12 years & 3 months

ARMAIS Reigned 4 years & 1 month

RAMESSES Reigned 1 year & 4 months

ARMESSES MIAMOUN Reigned 66 years & 2 months

AMENOPHIS Reigned 19 years & 6 months

Total 332 years

More kings


RAMESSES Had an army of horses and a naval force. His brother Armais (Danaus) was deputy over Egypt and plotted to take the kingdom while Ramesses was on an expedition. Ramesses returned to Egypt to retake the kingdom and Armais (Danaus) went to Argos (Greece). Apparently this occured 393 years after the Hyksos and the Israelites were expelled from Egypt in the days of Tethmosis.


(The Genesis Apocryphon of the Dead Sea Scrolls)

1. Abram dwelt in Hebron for 2 years when the city was being built.

2. Because of famine Abram journeyed to prosperous Egypt and came to the Karmon river and crossed the 7 branches of the river and "entered the land of the sons of Ham".

3. After living in Egypt for 5 years, the pharaoh of Zoan sent 3 princes including Harkenosh (Hyrcanos- a Greek surname of unknown origins used by the Jews) to inquire concerning Abram and his business.


The pharaoh upon hearing of the exceeding beauty of Sarai took her unto himself as a wife for 2 years, but did not have sexual relations with her because God answered Abram's prayer and smote the king and his household with an evil illness.


Prince Harkenosh was instrumental in returning Sarai back to Abram, the pharaoh humbled himself and received a blessing under the hands of Abram and was healed.


After living in Egypt during 7 years of famine, Abram, Sarai, and Lot, were given many gifts and riches from the king and were kindly led out of Egypt to return to the land of Caanan.


(According to Josephus)

The city of Hebron within Canaan is "seven years more ancient than Tanis of Egypt" (Book 1;8:3); and according to the Genesis Apocryphon of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Hebron was still under original construction when Abraham dwelt there for two years. The name Tanis is Greek and in Hebrew it is called Zoan, which means place of departure, being  built seven years after Hebron (Numbers 13:22). Tanis was Dja'net (Egyptian) and is presently called San el-Hagar. Modern thinking is that Tanis was not as archaic as insinuated by Josephus but sprung up later in the New Kingdom Period after the days of Abraham. The age of Canaan and Tanis according to Josephus is legendary lore that cannot be passed over lightly. Perhaps the Tanis recognized today is the wrong site or maybe archeologists have yet to reveal more ancient origins. There are however inscriptions inside the temple complex of Amun, names of kings from the Old Kingdom Period who must have been associated with this site in greater antiquity. There is however the possibility that the Tanis mentioned by Josephus, the Zoan of the Hebrews, was on another site in the Delta where the Israelites dwelt.

Abram went to Egypt to partake of the "plenty" and to "become an auditor of their priests". Book 1; 8:1

Pharaoh lusted after Sarai, therefore God smote him with a "sickness" and a "rebellion against his government".   Book 1; 8:1

Abram was permitted by the king to "enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians" and had a great reputation among them.  Book 1; 8:1,2

Abram reasoned with the Egyptians concerning religious doctrine and discussed the science of arithmetic and astronomy.  The Egyptians were ignorant of astronomy which was a science had by the Chaldeans and delivered to Egypt by Abram.  Book 1; 8:2

Pharaoh gave Abram a large present of "money" to make amends for his unlawful desires towards Sarai.  Book 1; 8:1


(According to Josephus)

The pharaoh was probably considerably older than Joseph (age 30) who when summoned from prison was addressed, "O young man". Book 2; 5:5

Joseph was undoubtedly dwelling at the Egyptian capital of Memphis when Judah came to meet him there and inform him of Jacob's approach into Egypt.  Knowing this, Joseph traveled north for a rendezvous with Jacob as "they met together at Heliopolis" which is at the southern apex of the Delta, merely 25 miles north of Memphis. Book 2; 7:5

The incoming family of Jacob worked as shepherds in Goshen which was an occupation which the Egyptians detested, "for the Egyptians are prohibited to meddle with the feeding of sheep" and shepherds are an "abomination". Book 2; 7:5; Gen 46:34

After Jacob met the king he journeyed again northward to "live with his children in Heliopolis, for in that city the king's shepherds had their pasturage".  The 13th Nome of Lower Egypt which includes Heliopolis is a perfect place for Goshen as the insignia for the Nome consists of the shepherd's crook and spool of twine.

Noah & wife ¦

Ham & Egyptus (Zeptah) [1]  ¦

Pharaoh (Mizraim) & Egyptus (Kahtoumun) [2]


(Ludim, Anamin, Lehabim), (Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, Caphtorim)

(strife)                                    (fiery)               (border people)      (south region)           (fortified)                 (crown)

¦                                                                   ¦

Libya                                                   Egypt's Fathers


Ham~ Several definitions have been attributed to this Hebrew name including hot, warm, fervent, sun burnt, dark and black.   The earliest Egyptians were darker skinned and called the southern land kmt because of the black soil.

Egyptus~ This name is from the Greek Aigyptos derived from the name Egypt (land of the Copt) and signifies the Two Lands.

Mizraim~ The Hebrews referred to Egypt as Mizraim a name suggesting duality and signifies the two Egypts. The name Mesraim (Misr meaning red soil of the north) according to Josephus refers to the country of Egypt as the Mestre and the people of Egypt as the Mestreans.  Similarly the prophet Joseph Smith in his Alphabet and Grammar studies referred to Egypt as Ahmehstrah and the people as Ahmehstrahans.

Pharaoh~ A Greek word which is translated as per-aa in Egyptian and signifies the great royal house of the king of Egypt who descended from royal blood.



[1]  Zeptah was the name of Ham's wife according to the (unofficial) Joseph Smith Alphabet and Grammar and signifies that which is forbidden.


[2]  Kahtoumun was the name of Ham's daughter according to the (unofficial) Joseph Smith Alphabet and Grammar and is a distinction of royal female lineage or descent, according to ancient traditions.

Last Updated on Monday, 17 May 2010 13:34  

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