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Home Book of Abraham Special Section Abydos king list and Royal canon of Turin list

Abydos king list and Royal canon of Turin list

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The Abydos King List in the Hall of Ancestors

(Temple of Seti I)

 

1.     Meni (established one)

2.     Teti

3.     Iti (the sovereign)

4.     Ita (the sovereign vulture)

5.     Djaty (two estates)

6.     Mer-ba-pen

7.     Semsem (priest of priests or Ptah priest)

8.     Qebh (hawk headed god of the south)

9.     Mdw-ti-umer (staff, pestle and chisel)

10.   Ka-kau (soul of bulls)

11.   Khnum-netjer-n (sacred ram)

12.   Uadj-nes

13.   Sen-di or Sen-dji (feared one)

14.   Dja-dja-tepy (the head chief)

15.   Neb-ka (lord of the soul)

16.   Djeser-za (sacred protection)

17.   Teti

18.   Z-djes (I am my own man)

19.   Nefer-ka-re (good soul of Re)

20.   Snefru

21.   Khufu

22.   Djedef-re

23.   Khaf-re

24.   Men-kau-re

25.   Shep-ses-kaf

26.   User-kaf

27.   Sahu-re

28.   Kakai (Neferirkare)

29.   Nefer-ef-re

30.   Niuser-re  (Ini)

31.   Men-kau-hor  (Kaiu)

32.   Djed-ka-re  (Isesi)

33.   Unas

34.   Teti

35.   User-ka-re

36.   Mery-re (Pepi I)

37.   Meren-re

38.   Nefer-ka-re  (Pepi II)

39.   Meren-zam-saf

40.   Neter-ka-re

41.   Men-ka-re

42.   Nefer-ka-re

43.   Nefer-ka-neby

44.   Djed-ka-maa-re  (king of herdsman)

45.   Nefer-ka-khendu-re

46.   Meren-hor

47.   Snefer-ka

48.   Ne-ka-re

49.   Nefer-kat-ru-re

50.   Nefer-ka-hor

51.   Nefer-ka-pepy-seneb-re

52.   Nefer-ka-annu-re

53.   Nefer-kau-re?

54.   Nefer-kau-re

55.   Nefer-kau-hor

56.   Nefer-ir-ka-re

57.   Neb-medoo-re (Mentuhotep I)

58.   Sankh-ka-re (Mentuhotep II)

59.   Sehotep-ib-re  (Amenemhat I)

60.   Kheper-ka-re  (Senusret I)

61.   Neb-kau-re  (Amenemhat II)

62.   Kha-kheper-re  (Senusret II)

63.   Kha-kau-re  (Senusret III)

64.   Nemaat-re  (Amenemhat III)

65.   Maa-kheru-re

66.   Neb-pehty-re  (Amose I)

67.   Djeser-ka-re  (Amenhotep I)

68.   Aa-kheper-ka-re  (Tuthmose I)

69.   Aa-kheper-en-re  (Tuthmose II)

70.   Men-kheper-re  (Tuthmose III)

71.   Aa-kheperu-re  (Amenhotep II)

72.   Men-kheperu-re  (Tuthmose IV)

73.   Neb-maat-re  (Amenhotep III)

74.   Djeser-kheperu-re  Setep-en-er  (Horemheb)

75.   Men-pehty-re  (Ramesses I)

76.   Men-maat-re  (Seti I)



Royal Canon of Turin King List

 

 

PLATE I

(Pre-Dynastic Horus God Kings)

 

1

Geb lifetime

2

Ausar (Osiris)

3

Setekh (Seth)

4

Hor (Horus), Hor gods, 300 years

5

Djehuty (Thoth), life, prosperity, health, 7,726

6

Maa't, 100 years

7

Hor (Horus)

8

Hor (Horus)

 

 

 

PLATE II

(Early Dynastic Horus Kings)

 

1

Meni (established), life, prosperity, health

2

Meny, life, prosperity, health, doing...

3

It [i] (sovereign)

4

?

5

[It] ai (sovereign vulture) of the south

6

Djaty (two estates) of Upper & Lower Egypt

7

Mer-grg-p (desire to setup a statue base)

8

Semsem (priest of priests or Ptah priest)

9

[Q] bh (hawk headed god)

10

[Netjer] bau (divine spirits of power)

11

[Ka] ka (soul as a bull)

12

[Khnum] netjer-n (sacred ram-god)

13

[Uadj-nes]

14

[Sendji] (feared one)

15

A'aka or Ka'a (great soul)

 

 

 

PLATE III

(Early Dynastic & Old Kingdom Periods)

 

1

Nefer-ka-soker, 8 years

2

Hu-djefa (food and provisions of Horus) [11 years], 8 months, 4 days

3

Bebty, 27 years

4

Nebka, 19 years

5

Djeserit, he has performed kingship 19 years, 9 months, lifetime

6

Djeserty, 6 years

7

[Djefa] (provisions) 6 years

8

H [uni], life, prosperity, health, 24 years, builder, guide

9

Snefru, 24 years

10

[Khufu], 23 years

11

[Djedefre], 8 years

12

Kha [fre]

13

[Menkaure]

14

18 years

15

4 years

16

2 years

17

[?]-Ka, 7 years

18

[?], 12 years

19

[?]

20

[?], 7 years

21

[?]

22

[?]

23

Men-ka-hor, 8 years

24

Djed, 28 years

25

Unis, 30 years

 

Kingship, ordain/begin, Menity to Men [?]

 

 

 

PLATE IV

(First Intermediate Period Horus Kings)

 

1

Nitiqrty

2

Nefer-ka

3

Nefer

4

Ib

5

[?]

6

[?]

7

Nefer-ka-Re

8

Khet-shepsy

9

Se-nen-eh

10

[?]

11

Mer-[?]

12

Shed-[?]

13

H-[?]

 

 

 

PLATE V

(First Intermediate & Middle Kingdom Period)

 

1

[?]

2

[?]

3

[?]

4

[?]

5

[?] 90 years (Pepi II)

6

[?]

7

[?]

8

[?]

9

[?]

10

[?]

11

[?]

12

[?]

13

Neb-kheru-Re [Mentuhotep I], 51 years

14

Sankh-ka-Re [Mentuhotep II], 12 years

15

Kings, Royal Residence, Seizer of the two lands

16

Pib [Sehotep-ib-Re; Amenemhet I], he performed kingship

17

Ka [Kheper-ka-Re; Senusret I], 45 years

18

[Amenemhet II], 1 year

19

[Senusret II], 13 [19] years

20

[Senusret III], 30 years

21

[Amenemhet III], 20 [40] years

 

 

 

PLATE VI

(Middle Kingdom)

 

1

Maa-kheru-Re, 9 years, 3 months, 27 days

2

Queen Sobek-nefru, 3 years, 10 months, 27 days

3

Khu-tawy-Re, 2 years, 3 months, 24 days

4

Sekhem-ka-Re, 3 years

5

Amen-em-hat-Re

6

Sehotep-ib-Re

7

Iunfni

8

Sankh-ib-Re

9

Smen-ka-Re

10

Sehotep-ib-Re

11

Swadj-ka-Re

12

Nedjem-ib-[?]-Re

13

Sobek-[hotep]-Re

14

Ren-[seneb]

15

Au-ib-Re [Hor]

16

Sedjef-[?]-ka-Re

17

Sekhem-Re Khu-tawy Sobek-hotep

18

User-[ka]-Re [khen]-djer

19

[?]-Re [?]-ka

20

[?]-ka

21

[?]-ib-Hor-Sutekh

22

Sekhem-Re [?]-Sobek-hotep, 3 years, 2 months

23

Kha-[sekhem]-Re Nefer-hotep, 11 years

24

Hwt-Re-her-Hor-sa

25

Kha-nefer-Re Sobek-hotep

 

 

 

PLATE VII

(Middle Kingdom)

 

1

Kha-hotep-Hor-Re, 4 years

2

Uah-ibya-ib-Re, 10 years, 8 months, 28 days

3

Mer-nefer-Re, 23 years, 8 months,18 days

4

Mer-hotep-Re, 2 years

5

Sankh-nes-wadj-tu-Re, 3 years

6

Mer-sekhem-in-[?]-Re, 3 years

7

Sudj-ka-Hori-Re, [5] years

8

Mer-ka-Re, 2 years

9

[?]

10

[?]

11

[?]

12

[?]-mose

13

[?]-[?]-Maa't-Re

14

[?]-Re-uben-Re

15

[?]-ka-Hor-Re

16

[?]-Re

17

[?]-Re

18

[?]

19

[?]-Hor

20

[?]-r-Re

21

Mer-kheper-Re

 

Mer-ka-[Re]

 

 

 

PLATE VIII

(Middle Kingdom)

 

1

Ne-hesy

2

Khaty-Re

3

Nebef-aut-Re, 1 year, 5 months, 15 days

4

Se-heb-Re, 3 years

5

Mer-djefa-Re, 3 years

6

Saa'-ka-Re, 1 year

7

Neb-djefa-Re-Re, 1 year

8

Uben-Re-Hor-Re

9

[?], 1 year

10

[?]-Re, 4 years

11

[?]-bin-Re-Hor-[?], 3 years

12

Aut-ib-Re

13

Her-ib-Re, life, prosperity

14

Neb-sen-Re

15

[?]-Re

16

Skheper-ren-Re, 2 year

17

Djed-Hor-kheru-Re, 2 year

18

Sankh-ib-Re

19

Nefer-tem-[?]-Hor-Re

20

Sekhem-[?]-Re

21

Ka-[?]-ut-kha-Re

22

Nefer-ib-[?]-Re

23

Ii-[?]-Re, life, prosperity, health

24

Khaa'-[?]-Re

25

Aa'-ka-Re

26

Smen-[?]-Re

27

Djed-djed-[?]-Re

 

 

 

PLATE IX

(Middle Kingdom & Second Intermediate Period)

 

1

[?]-Re

2

[?]

3

[?]

4

[?]-Re

5

[?]-Re

6

Snefer-[?]-Re

7

Men-[?]-Re

8

[?]-djed-djed-[?]

9

[?]

10

[?]

11

[?]

12

Inek-[?] [your Bulti-fish]

13

Ii-neb-[?] [every utterence]

14

Ip-[?]

15

Hab

16

Sa [son]

17

Hapu-kha [Apis Bull]

18

Shemes-su [follow]

29

Meni-[?]

20

Wer-kai [great height]

21

[?]

22

[?]-I-ka

23

[?]-Hor

24

[?]-ren

25

[?]-ka-Hor

26

[?]-ka-Hor

27

[?]

 

 

 

PLATE X

(Second Intermediate Period)

 

1

I-[?]

2

Sutekh-Hor-[?]

3

Nu-[?]

4

Hor-[?]

5

[?]

6

Iw-ibi-[?] [non-thirsty]

7

Mer-[?]-peh-Hor

8

Penen-set-[?]-n-sepet

9

Kher-hemaut-[?] [under woman]

10

Khui-hemet [protected woman]

11

[?]

12

[?]

13

[?]

14

Seket-[?]

15

Ar-[?]

 

 

 

PLATE XI

(Second Intermediate Period)

 

1

Sekhem-[?]-Re, 3 years

2

Sekhem-Hor-[?]-Re, 13 years

3

Sekhem-Hor-s-[?]-Re, 1 year

4

Swadj-n-[?]-Re, 1 year

5

Neb-iry-au-Re

6

Neb-it-au-Re

7

Smen-dja-Re

8

Suser-sir-[?]-Re

9

Sekhem-shed-Waset-Re

10

[?]-Re

11

[?]

12

[?]-Re

13

[?]

14

[?]

15

User-[?]-Re

16

User-[?]

17

[?]-heb-Re

18

[?]

19

[?]

20

[?], 3 years

21

[?]-n-Re-Hor, 3 years

 

 

 

 

FIRST DYNASTY

 

Narmer is Menes

 

'The Catfish-Chisel is Established’

 

The evidence confirms that the above names represent one in the same person, the first southern king from This to unite all Egypt. The votive Narmer Palette which was found near the temple of Hierakonpolis depicts the king wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt (Sais & Buto) and the White Crown of Upper Egypt (Hierakonpolis & Abydos) as he claims a war victory in the marshland of the Delta, inspects a battlefield near Buto, and unifies Egypt under one monarchy. This event inaugurated the First Dynasty as we are told by Manetho, classical writers, and official Egyptian king-lists which concur that Menes was the first king of Egypt and must have been the one to unify or to at least conquer both Upper and Lower Egypt as depicted by the iconography on the Narmer Palette. There can be little doubt that the Narmer Palette was held in the hands of succeeding kings who recognized the victorious Narmer as the founding king of united Egypt, which knowledge has come down to us in the name of Menes.

 

According to Herodotus Menes founded Memphis by diverting the Nile with a dam which was maintained even in the days of the Persians but if the dykes failed all of Memphis would be flooded. The priests of Hephaestus (Ptah) at the temple of Memphis informed Herodotus that Menes also built a great temple to Ptah in Memphis. The Delta at that time was a marsh covered with water north of Lake Moeris (Faiyum).

 

Until recently every king-list started with the name of Menes as the first king of Egypt. In the late 20th century two seals were found in Abydos listing the kings of the First Dynasty in accordance to conventional chronology with the exception of the first king which was listed as Narmer! This confirms that Menes and Narmer are one in the same.

 

Turin Papyrus

Abydos Temple

Manetho

Abydos Seals

Meni

Meni

Menes

Narmer

 

 

~Note:  It's interesting to point out that fish imagery and fish cults were indigenous to the 1st Dynasty only and that Narmer was the only king of Egypt to have a fish hieroglyph as part of his royal name.

 

 

Hor-Aha

 

‘fighting hawk’

 

The successor of Menes also bears the name Men on the Turin king-list and may well be the son of Menes. There seems to be a contradiction between Manetho who attributes the second king with a reign of 62 years before being  killed by a hippopotamus and Herodotus who said that the only son of Min whose name was Maneros died an untimely death. However, being killed by an animal could be construed as "an untimely death" as opposed to dieing with dignity at the royal court. Apparently Herodotus was also told by the priests that a national song was made in his honor. Hor-Aha fought in campaigns and subdued rebels in Nubia. From this it is clear that his strong arm was ever present in the south because he built a tomb in Abydos as did his six successors. Whether or not Hor-Aha and his dynastic successors built at Saqqara is controversial. Opinions vary as to whether the tombs in Abydos are actual burial sights, false tombs, or cenotaphs; the controversy leads to continual open forum concerning the actual location for 1st Dynasty tombs.

 

Djer

 

'succor’

 

The next king to follow has arm of influence that spans the entire stretch of Egypt in as much as an ivory label indicates that he traveled to northern Delta cities including Buto, and that he not only fought against the Setjet (Western Asia) but a rock relief near 2nd cataract shows Nubians fallen in battle and cities captured. Djer built a large royal tomb in Abydos and imported lapis is found in some graves thereat, but after Djer lapis is not known again until the 4th Dynasty. Manetho gave a long reign of 57 years.

 

Djet

 

'cobra’

 

The cobra king is said to have built a step pyramid but it has not survived--again we see a royal tomb constructed in Abydos. Djet campaigned against the easterners and in his day there is said to have been a famine. A nobleman by the name of Sekhem-Kha built an impressive tomb at Saqqara which included dozens of sacrificed victims to accompany Sekhem-Kha to the underworld and hundreds of bull's horns adorn the perimeter of the tomb. These provisions seem hardly worthy of a mere nobleman but are more fit for a king. Was Sekhem-Kha a northern king contemporary with Djet?

 

 

 

 

 

Den

 

'strike’

 

Manetho said that Den ruled the Two Lands for 20 years. The Palermo Stone records that an unknown king (probably Den) smote the Troglodytes and an ivory label depicts Den smiting an Asiatic chieftain with a mace club but all evidence of Sumerian connection ceased as did all alien influence until the end of the Old Kingdom. Den is the first king to be shown to wear the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt so we may assume that his power base was wide spread. He was busy king who undertook a huge domestic project which involved reclaiming the swamp land from the Faiyum. Den's stele also attests that he founded the Apis Bull cult and yet again a royal tomb is built in Abydos while his chancellor Hemaka built a magnificent tomb in Saqqara.

 

 

 

 

 

Anedjib

 

'safe heart’

 

This king was originally from This and was married to queen Tarset/Betrest (Memphite heiress) who was the mother of Semerkhet, the next king. There is no evidence that Anedjib ruled both Upper & Lower Egypt but the evidence points to a political struggle between north and south in a era of change and turmoil while Nome clans offered resistance to unity. This troubled king is said to have ruled for 14 years having constructed a very poor and small tomb in Abydos although a nobleman by the name of Nebitka was blessed with a fine tomb in Saqqara. Anedjib's successor erased his name from many stone vases which clearly proves that a power struggle resulted in a legacy which showed a reduced amount of respect for this king.

 

 

 

 

 

Semerkhet

 

'thoughtful friend’

 

The Palermo Stone records a nine year reign and Manetho gives an 18 year reign and notes that the reign was accompanied with disasters. Semerkhet erased the names from many stone vases owned by the previous king which seems to imply that he may have thought his predecessor to be an usurper. Semerkhet built his own tomb in Abydos but his name was omitted from the Saqqara king-list.

 

 

 

 

 

Qa'a

 

'raised arm’

 

A stele shows Qa’a wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and his tomb was built in Abydos. To note--1st Dynasty kings and a few of the 2nd Dynasty kings sacrificed companies of retainers to be buried with the king. Sadly, every tomb and cenotaph (north & south) of the 1st Dynasty kings were deliberately destroyed by fire, most likely by the hostile supplanters of the 2nd Dynasty. Manetho breaks the 1st Dynasty and begins a second although the reason is not stated and there is no real evidence to justify that these two dynasties ran in series, but may have actually existed simultaneously for at least part of the time. As noted earlier, there were dynastic problems with the monarchy during the reigns of Anedjib and Semerkhet which could have resulted in an overlapping at the end of the 1st Dynasty to the beginning of the 2nd, with Manetho making a distinction between the royal houses.

Last Updated on Monday, 17 May 2010 13:36  

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